Category: AHF Buyer’s Guide
Small is the new black in the Active Harmonic Filter market
It is not only ABB and Schneider that release new, smaller Active Harmonic Filters. Comsys, a Swedish company specialized in Active Harmonic Filters presented their new ADF-P25 model at the SPS Nürnberg last November. We got a chat with Rickard Jacobson, Head of Sales and Marketing at Comsys.
“We see an increasing demand for smaller filters in applications such as datacenters and commercial buildings where harmonics is an increasing issue. We scaled down our current design to 30A but it offers all the functionality and robustness that you find in the larger industrialized versions. As this filters will be broadly utilizedused we have focused a lot on simplicity, plug and play, making it very easy to commission and operate. We offer the option of Sensorless control as well as WiFi to access a bigger user interface on a mobile device.
We think this can be a great entry offering as customers can test the solution without allocating too much funds. It fits well with larger HVAC systems and building technology in general.”
Global Active Filter Compensation
Comsys has released a application note explaining the detailed advantages of using central filtering of many drives rather than installing separate low harmonic drives. A central active harmonic filter is often the cheapest and most efficient answer to maintain code compliance.
Read the report here: Global-vs-Local-Compensation_Application_Note
Schaffner updates its modular active harmonic filters – Ecosine Active Sync
Schaffner launches an updated version of its rack mounted active harmonic filter with higher efficiency and heat tolerance as we understand.
The modular design of ecosine active sync always allows a suitable filter size to be supplied and, in addition, the 60 A modules can be easily fixed to the wall or integrated into system control cabinets. Simply slide in and wire up – a filter from up to 300 A per cabinet is ready.
ecosine active sync in detail
- Most effective harmonic mitigation up to 50th order (odd and even). Below 5% THID achievable even for mixed and dynamic load profile.
- Most compact and modular design. Flexible and easy installation.
- Robust, reliable and suits the broadest temperature (power module up to 50°C) range with full performance.
- High efficiency (< 2.3% losses) and very low acoustic noise.
- Only air cooling for all product variants with IP 20 power module, IP 21 (roof kit) and IP 54 cabinet version.
- Reactive Power Compensation
- Load balancing
- Modular ready to use, retrofit integration in slide-technology cabinet
- Ultra-flexible mounting and installation options
Active + Passive = Hybrid
Active Harmonic Filters are becoming cheaper and very competitive compared to other active mitigation solutions such as Active Front End, which we explained here. In some applications that are not too dynamic, a passive harmonic filter makes perfect sense to reduce the investment. A combination of active and passive filters can be the best solution to reduce the investment cost while still being able to cope with dynamic loads. In such an application the passive harmonic filter focuses on the dominant harmonic component. This solution is currently used by for example the German auto industry in their production lines.
PQ Nosswitz, a German power quality solutions firm, devised a system to allow a flexible combination of active harmonic filters and passive harmonic filters to enable the most flexible and cost efficient solution for every project.
Active Filtering Just Got Simpler
Active Filtering just got simpler with Sensorless Control
Comsys has released a new solution for controlling the Active Harmonic
Filter. The sensorless active filter control reduces the cost and
complexity of the system as it does not require any current transformer
In this case study they describe the retrofit on a small diesel
electric powered oil tanker, Fox Luna. The sensorless active filtering
approach is well equipped for protecting sensitive loads from dirty grids.
Low Harmonic Drive Optimization
Earlier on the blog, we have defined the Active Harmonic Filter (AHF) as the best low harmonic choice for variable speed drives. A common question often put is whether the drive has to be fitted with a line filter as well.
In theory a well designed Active Filter can compensate a drive without a choke but this may not be the optimal solution. This would create the need for a bigger Active Filter, and the drives rectifier would be stressed by the compensation power from the filter. This in turn would reduce the drive’s life span.
A very common solution is to install a 2% or 5% choke on the drive. Many high quality drives have such chokes fitted as standard. Fitting a choke reduces the harmonics from 85-100% to about 35-40% which is a very cost effective solution. The remaining, and significantly lower THD, means the size of the final and more expensive filtering is much smaller.
The choke will also dampen the compensation power affecting the drive. Leaving out the choke, the drive’s rectifier will degrade over time.
So the answer is yes, a Low Harmonic Drive system using Active Harmonic Filters will benefit from using a choke to complement. It gives the overall system a lower cost and higher availability.
Active Harmonic Filters – Buyer’s Guide
Active Harmonic Filters are growing in popularity as a method to mitigate power quality issues. There are several factors to consider when specifying an active harmonic filter. Typical applications for active filters are compensation of variable frequency drives and data-centers to reduce the load on UPS systems or compensating the effects of renewable energy sources on the grid.
What is an Active Harmonic Filter and what is its Application.
The general definition to describe this application is an analog or digital device that measures the power quality on the grid side. It then injects current to compensate any unwanted deviations from the standard 50 or 60 Hz supply. Deviations can be mitigated in full or partially.
What Factors to Consider when Specifying an Active Harmonic Filter
Sensor or sensorless control
There are suppliers that provide sensorless control eliminating the need for current transformers. This solution reduce the installation cost. Sensorless is not used in all applications so make sure to check the application with the supplier. Sensorless control or voltage control as it is sometimes defined compensates the total THD. It is not possible to select a single source such as a single VFD. On the plus-side it is possible to protect a sensitive subgrid from a noisy primary grid.
Depending on design, the filter has higher or lower losses. Check the losses as this will reduce the Life Cycle Cost on your investment. Some active filters have up to 1%-point lower losses, which depending on your user profile, means a potential for considerable financial savings if calculated LCC over 5 years.
Harmonic Compensation Capacity
Harmonics are normally seen in the odd. Common capacity for active filters is 25th or 50th harmonic. Sometimes there is a claim of being able to mitigate the 51st harmonic, which has little value as harmonic order of 51 and above are normally not important.
Harmonics above the 50th are more difficult to measure as there are few PQ-meters that can handle such orders. There are however quite common sources such as Active Front End Drives that cause switching ripple above 3kHz, above the 60th harmonic (or above the 50th in 60 Hz systems).
There are a few Active Harmonic Filters capable of compensating such frequencies. Choose a filter according to the needs specified by your measurements.
A filter’s capacity to compensate a certain harmonic order is only part of the story. Another important factor is de-rating, discussed below.
Some power quality phenomena occur extremely fast requiring the mitigation to be even faster. If your process is affected by fast flicker or transients, take special care to evaluate the response capacity of the filter. Flicker is a specific phenomena that normally requires special software to compensate flicker in a controlled environment.
Interharmonics is commonly caused by syncronisation issues. If your installation includes such interharmonic sources, the type of active filter changes and the vendor has to be consulted. This is a common issue on some types of older wind turbines.
In Europe there are strict guidelines regarding EMC. If you want to be sure that the active filter does not interfere, the filter must be fitted with a properly tuned EMC-filter.
An Active Harmonic Filter’s rating is normally defined at nominal load, meaning at 50/60Hz. As the filter works further up the harmonics its capacity compared to nominal starts to de-rate. The de-rating curve is documented by all serious suppliers and should be available if you ask them.
A de-rating of 50%, at say the 13th harmonic, means that a 100A filter only has the capacity to compensate 50A at the 13th. Naturally if you have harmonics of higher order it becomes more important to check the de-rating.
De-rating is a matter of how robustly the filter is designed. Some suppliers offer zero de-rating up to the 7th before capacity starts to fall.
Physical Footprint – How Much Cabinet Space is Required?
Most active filter suppliers offer several alternatives regarding installation. Wall mount, Cabinet and IP00 modules to install in cabinets. Efficient use of cabinet space translates to lower system cost. Some filters have a modular design and can be enhanced with further capacity without adding to the footprint.
As mentioned, a modular design of your Active Harmonic Filter enables you to adapt the filter to potential changes in your future power compensation needs. The modular design means that you can easily add to the filter’s capacity within the existing cabinet, saving both cost and space.
Does the filter have built in commissioning software? Commissioning and service of Active Filters can be quite time consuming. Ask for a review of the support software included in the machine. Some suppliers have an extra charge for the necessary software. Minimum required functionality should be that the system performs a self-check of Voltage and CT phase order, CT polarity check, self-diagnosis, and self-calibration. Such features will quickly find installation errors before they can cause problems and will also shorten the needed commissioning time.
If the filter does not have this type of support software the commissioning becomes much more complex and might even require external support adding to the system cost.
There are different HMI setups. Some have a very simple front HMI while others include graphs showing the current and voltage waveforms and many further functions. A great added value is to have at least a web-based interface allowing in-depth monitoring and control functionality. Then no extra PQ-meter is necessary.
Smart Grid Functionality
Active filters have a built in rudimentary power and power quality meter to calculate the required compensation. Some filter manufacturers make use of this fact and enable the user to connect all filters on site and company wide through a web based architecture. An operator can then have an overview of the status of all connected cabinets and log them. This enables the possibility to log events that could or should have caused production disturbances, status monitoring of individual filters as well as remote control capability. Email and text alerts to dedicated service personnel from the filter reduce response time dramatically.
IP/NEMA Class and Water Cooling
Water-cooled Active Filters enable very good cooling of the IGBTs, the most critical component in the Active Filter. Water-cooling reduces overheating immensely, which increases availability in the same way as for Variable Frequency Drives. The power density of the installation is also improved.
Active Harmonic Filters are offered in a range of voltages. Most common ranges are 380–415V, up to 480 V. Higher voltages up to 600 and 690V are also available without step-up transformer, reducing foot print. Some suppliers have the capacity to supply MV ratings as well, normally using a step-up transformer. The active filter can then act as STATCOM.
In recent years several suppliers are offering battery connectivity to create a battery energy storage system for FCR and peak shaving. The active filters on-load capabilities are perfect for grid connectivity applications.
Sensorless Voltage Control
Recently a new type of sensorless solution make it much easier to install as no CTs are required which is standard for active harmonic filters. This method can not control specific frequencies but can be used to even mitigate noise from the grid.
Some filters offer resonance damping making them ideal in highly complex situations.
Power Losses and Low Harmonic Drives
Using the active filter in shunt applications has a lot of energy saving potential compared to using serial filters – either passive or active front end.
Here are some examples and what they mean to you as user. When seen as a system, the active filter in shunt mode offers a total system loss that is lower than that of the passive filter.
Passive Harmonic Filters
A passive filter has between 0.6-1.5% losses
Assuming a 6-pulse drive has 2% losses, the total system loss is the sum of the losses
Pdrive*PFilter = 2% + (1.5 <-> 0.6)% => 3.5% to 2.6% total system loss.
NOTE! This does not include an eventual voltage drop through the passive filter and its effect on the motor’s losses.
Serial Active Filter – Front End
An active front end drive essentially has twice the loss of a standard drive as the power has to pass through two IGBTs.
Pafe = 2% + 2% + 1% for the LCL-filter = 5% losses. Total system losses observed in documentation are 4.7-5%.
Shunt Active Filter
Unlike the serial solutions the shunt active filter only has to be sized according to the harmonic currents to be filtered out. Under normal conditions this means that in a IEEE-519 or G5/4 application the filter has to be sized 15-30% of the 6-pulse load. This means the total system loss is also much lower even though the efficiency of the Active Filter is:
Pdrive + Padf = 0.02 + 0.02* (0,15 – 0,3) = 2.3 – 2.6 % in total system losses.
Summary from a System Owner’s View
Shunt Active Harmonic filters offer between 0 and 1.17% points lower power consumption compared to Passive Harmonic Filters. This does not include any effect from voltage drop through the serial passive filter.
Shunt Active Harmonic Filters offer between 2.7 – 2.4 % lower power consumption compared to Active Front End drives.
Power Losses are a Significant Part of Your Life Cycle Cost Calculation
Minimising losses over time, especially in industrial process loads with more than 8000 hours of yearly operation, 1%-point saving in power consumption translates into significant value.
(Pdrive + Pcooling) (kW)* Yearly operation hours(h)*Net Losses(%) = Total cost saving potential
Energy Cost Estimate
Electrical power prices differ but the relation between cooling and electricity is roughly equivalent to
Pcooling = 0.3 * Pdrive
In the case of the AFE there are cases where the entire harmonic mitigation solution has been paid off in 2.5 years simply by choosing shunt Active Harmonic Filters instead of Active Front End thanks to lower power losses.
The Active Harmonic Filter is very competitive compared to both Passive filters and Active Front End. As the capital expenditure is very similar, a lower power consumption make the AHF a very good overall choice.
Furthermore the availability offered by a shunt installation where the drive can continue to operate even though the mitigation has failed offer a great upside through higher availability of the process.
Trusted suppliers of Active Harmonic Filters
There are plenty of suppliers of Active Harmonic Filters on the market. Their capabilities vary and the innovations within the field have been numerous. While some filters really only compensate for harmonics, other Active Harmonic Filters have the ability to compensate for just about any power quality problems with a few sofware adjustments to fit your specific problem profile.
Investing in Active Harmonic Filters
Make sure to always start by getting proper measurements to ensure you know what issues are the real cause of your power quality problems. Harmonics is only one of many potential concerns with regards to power quality – transients, oscillations and flicker are just a few of the additional problems you could be facing.
There are many potential solutions within the power quality field. Keeping an open mind is the best way to ensure you get the most effective solution and best ROI on your investment. It may also be that a combination of technologies is the most effective way to protect your production.
Trusted Suppliers of Active Harmonic Filters
- Schaffner (www.schaffner.com)
- ABB (www.abb.com)
- Comsys (www.comsys.se)
- Danfoss (www.danfoss.com)
- Schneider (www.schneider.com)
- Siemens (www.siemens.com)
- Vacon (www.vacon.com)